The gallbladder is located under the liver and near the stomach. Gallstones form when cholesterol or bile stored in the gallbladder hardens into pieces of stone-like material. Gallstones are made of cholesterol salts or bilirubin salts. Gallstones can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. The gallbladder can develop just one large stone, hundreds of tiny stones, or almost any combination.
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Gallstones are caused when bile or cholesterol crystalizes into gallstones.
Gallstones can form under the following conditions:
- Too much cholesterol in the bile
- Too much bilirubin in the bile
- Not enough bile salts
- When the gallbladder does not empty completely or often enough due to blockage or poor contraction
People who are older than 60 are at increased risk for gallstones. Women between 20-60 years old and those with high estrogen levels are also at increased risk. People of Native American, Mexican American, and Northern European descent are also at increased risk.
Other factors that may increase your risk of gallstones include:
Problems that affect the gallbladder such as:
- Inflammation of the lining of the gallbladder
- Poor gallbladder function
- Diseases of the gallbladder and ducts
- Previous gallstones
Dietary factors such as a:
- Rapid weight loss and fasting
- High fat diet
Certain conditions such as
or Crohn's disease
- Blockage in the biliary tract
- History of intestinal problems
Blood diseases that increase breakdown of hemoglobin and therefore bile production, including
sickle cell anemia
- Gastric bypass
- Liver disease, such as cirrhosis
- Metabolic syndrome
- Lack of physical activity
Certain medications can increase your risk of gallstones, including:
- Thiazide diuretics
- Cholesterol-lowering drugs—fibrates
Many people have gallstones without symptoms, called silent gallstones. In some cases, these are treated.
Gallstones may cause pain in the upper abdomen. This is sometimes called an attack because it begins suddenly, often after a fatty meal. The pain is severe and may last for 30 minutes or several hours.
Other symptoms include:
- Intermittent pain on the right, below the rib cage; the pain may spread
- Bloating, nausea, and vomiting
- Belching, gas, and indigestion
If you have the following symptoms, see your doctor right away:
- Abdominal pain
- Low-grade fever
- Yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes
- Clay-colored stools
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
Talk to your doctor about the best treatment plan for you.
cholecystectomy—the removal of the gallbladder through several small incisions in the abdomen. To view the gallbladder, a small, lighted tube with a camera is inserted into one of the incisions. Surgical instruments are used to remove the gallbladder through one of the other incisions.
- Open cholecystectomy—the removal of the gallbladder through a large incision in the abdomen. This is necessary if there is an infection in the abdomen or a great deal of scar tissue.
You may be prescribed:
- Over-the-counter or prescription medication to control pain
- Bile salt tablets to dissolve gallstones; these medications may need to be taken for months or years until the stones are dissolved
Shock wave lithotripsy—machine called a lithotripter generates shock waves that pass through the body to break the gallstone into smaller pieces
Another procedure that may be used to treat gallstones is called
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
(ERCP). ERCP uses a combination of endoscopy and x-rays to locate and remove gallstones before or during gallbladder surgery.
To reduce your chance of getting gallstones:
Gallstones. American Academy of Family Physicians' FamilyDoctor website. Available at:
Updated March 2014. Accessed November 12, 2015.
Gallstones. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114033/Gallstones. Updated July 22, 2016. Accessed September 28, 2016.
Gallstones. National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases website. Available at:
http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/gallstones. Updated November 27, 2013. Accessed November 12, 2015.
6/18/2014 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114033/Gallstones: Yarmish GM, Smith MP, et al. American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria on right upper quadrant pain. Available at: http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/RightUpperQuadrantPain.pdf. Updated 2013. Accessed December 9, 2014.
Last reviewed November 2015 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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